From the Great Recession to the Great Lockdown: a multidisciplinary approach





During the healthcare emergency that struck the world at the end of 2019, with the excuse of slowing the contagion and “flattening the curve”, governments engaged in a set of repressive policies that, if on the economic level have had deep, negative effects on the international division of labor, supply chains and production, on a political-juridical level further emptied the substance of the little that was remaining of the western, classical-liberal heritage. In its place a new form of “oriental despotism” was instituted. These episodes are tackled from different angles and understood as part and parcel of a public policy formulation that emerged during the early 2000’s and especially with the unfolding of the Great Recession (2008-2009). The latter ended up opening a pandora’s box as emergencies, whether real or imagined, were from then on seen, not as exceptional possibilities, but as recurring necessities given the overarching goal of instituting a “permanent revolution”.


Adams, J. (1821 [2017]). “Speech on Independence Day”. In C. Smith & J. Girard (Eds.), American History Through its Greatest Speeches (pp. 8-12). Santa Barbara : ABC-CLIO Publishers.Adler, S. (1957). The Isolationist Impulse: Its Twentieth-Century Reaction. New York, Abelard-Schuman.Agamben, G. (2021). “La guerra e la pace”. Available online:

Alonso, M., Bagus, P., & Rallo, J. (2011). “La Crisis Subprime a la Luz de La Teoria Austriaca Del Ciclo Economico: Expansión Crediticia, Errores De Decisión y Riesgo Moral”. Revista de Economía Mundial, 28, pp. 145-174.Anderson, B. (1949). Economics and the Public Welfare. Princeton: D. Van Nostrand Company.Aquinas, T. (1955). On the Truth of the Catholic Faith. Summa contra Gentiles. Book One: God. New York: Image Books. Originally published in 1258-1264.Arendt, H. (1976). The Origins of Totalitarianism. Orlando: Harcourt Brace & Company.Arkes, H. (1972). Bureaucracy, the Marshall Plan and the National Inter¬est. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Bagehot, W. (1885). The Postulates of English Political Economy. London: Longman, Greens and Co.Bagus, P. (2004). “La tragedia de los bienes comunales y la escuela austriaca: Hardin, Hoppe, Huerta de Soto y Mises”. Procesos de Mercado: Revista Europea de Economía Política, 1 (2), 125-139.

(2010). The Tragedy of the Euro. Auburn: Ludwig von Mises Institute.

(2011). “The Fed and the ECB: Two Paths, One Goal”. Available online:

(2020). “Calls for Central Planning in the COVID-19 Panic Are Like the Calls for the ‘War Socialism’ of Old”. Available online:

(2021). “Vaccine mandates and the ‘Great Reset’”. Available online:

Bandow, D. (1997). “A Look behind the Marshall Plan Mythology”. Available online:¬hind-marshall-plan-mythologyBanfield, E. (1974). The Unheavenly City Revisited. Boston: Little Brown.Bassani, L., & Lottieri, C. (2003). “The Problem of Security; Historicity of the State and ‘European Realism’”. In H. Hoppe (Ed.), The Myth of National Defense: Essays on the Theory and History of Security Production (pp. 21-64). Auburn: Ludwig von Mises Institute.Bastiat, F. (2012). The Law, The State, and Other Political Writings. Indianapolis: Liberty Fund.

Bastos, M. (2005). “Anti-Imperialismo de Derechas: La Tradición Politica del Aislacionismo Norteamericano”. RIPS: Revista de Investigaciones Políticas y Sociológicas, 4 (1), 97-113.Belloc, H. (2007). The Servile State. New York: Cosimo. Originally published in 1946.Benda, J. (2003). La Trahision des clercs. Paris: Grasset. Originally published in 1927.Berlin, I. (1972). “The Originality of Machiavelli”. In M. Gilmor (Ed.), Studies on Machiavelli. Florence: Sansoni.Bernanke, B. (2002). “On Milton Friedman’s Ninetieth Birthday”. In Conference to Honor Milton Friedman. Chicago (Illinois), United States, (8 November 2002).

(2004). “Money, Gold, and The Great Depression”. In H. Parker Willis Lecture in Economic Policy. Lexington (Virginia), United States, (2 March 2004).

(2017). The Courage to Act: A Memoir of a Crisis and its Aftermath. New York: W.W Norton & Company.

Block, W. (2010). “Is Milton Friedman a Libertarian?” Laissez-Faire, 32, 9-22.Blum, J. (1959). From the Morgenthau Diaries: Years of Crisis, 1928-1938. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company.Boeckx, J., & Cordemans, N. (2017). “Monetary Policy in the Wake of the Great Recession”. Reflets et Perspectives, 56 (1), 61-78.Boettke, P. & Horwitz, S. (2016). The House that Uncle Sam Built. Atlanta: Foundation for Economic Education.Boettke, P. & Newman, P. (2015). “The Keynesian Liquidity Trap: An Austrian Critique”. GMU Working Paper in Economics, pp. 1-21.Bohanon, C. (2012). “Economic Recovery: Lessons from the Post-World War II Period”. Mercatus on Policy, 112, 1-4.Bourne, R. (1998). The State. Tucson: Sharp Press.Callahan, G. & Garrison, R. (2003). “Does Austrian Business Cycle Theory Help Explain the Dot-Com Boom and Bust?” The Quar¬terly Journal of Austrian Economics, 6 (2), pp. 67-98.Capozzi, E. (2023). Storia del mondo post-occidentale. Cosa reta dell’età globale? Soveria Mannelli: Rubbettino.Carbone, F. (2009). Prevedibile e Inevitabile. La crisi dell’interventismo. Le cause del disastro e i rimedi possibili. Torino: Usemlab.

Cecchetti, S. & O’Sullivan, R. (2003). “The European Central Bank and the Federal Reserve”. Oxford Review of Economic Policy, 19 (1), 30-43.Cecchetti, S. & Schoenholtz, K. (2015). Money, Banking, and Financial Markets. New York: McGraw-Hill Education.Chang, D. (1988). China Under Deng Xiaoping: Political and Economic Reform. London: MacmillanConstancio, V. (2018). “Past and future of the ECB monetary policy.” In Central Banks in Historical Perspectiva: What Changed After the Financial Crisis? Valetta, Malta, (4 May 2018).Constant, B. (2009). Conquista e usurpazione. Torino: IBL Libri. Originally published in 1814.Corbellini, G., & Mingardi, A. (2021). La Società Chiusa in Casa. Venezia: Marsilio Editori.Corrêa, P. (2014). Revolution and Counter-Revolution. Pennsylvania: The American Society for the Defense of Tradition, Family and Property. Originally published in 1955.Council on Foreign Relations. (2018). The US Financial Crisis 1992-2018. Available online:, T. (1985). “The Marshall Plan: Myths and Realities”. In D. Bandow (Ed.), US Aid to the Developing World. Washington D.C: Heritage Foundation.Coyle, S. (2003). “Thomas Hobbes and the Intellectual Origins of Legal Positivism”. Canadian Journal of Law & Jurisprudence, 16 (2), 243-270.Croce, B. (1925). Elementi di Politica. Bari: Laterza.Del Noce, A. (1972). Lezioni sul marxismo. Milano: Giuffré.Demertzis, M., & Wolff, G. (2016). “The effectiveness of the European Central Bank’s Asset Purchase Programme”, 10, 1-16.Denson, J. (1999). War and American Freedom. In J. Denson (Eds.), The Costs of War (pp. 1-52). London: Routledge.Di Martino, B. (2018). La Grande Guerra (1914-1918). Stato Onnipotente e catastrofe della civiltà. Dallas: Monolateral.

(2021a). Libertà e Coronavirus. Dallas: Monolateral.

(2021b). Stretto nel Fascio. Nazi-fascismo contro l’individuo. Dallas: Monolateral.

DiLorenzo, T. (2002). “George Stigler and the Myth of Efficient Government”. Journal of Libertarian Studies, 16 (4), 55-73.

(2011). Franklin Delano Roosevelt’s New Deal: From Economic Fascism to Pork-Barrel Politics. In J. Denson (Ed.), Reassessing the Presidency. The Rise of the Executive State and the Decline of Freedom (pp. 425-452). Auburn: Ludwig von Mises Institute.

Doherty, B., Schiff, P., Henderson, D., Sumner, S., & Murphy, R. (2014). “Whatever Happened to Inflation?” Available online:, R. (2020a). “The Conquest of the United States by China”. Available online:

(2020b). “There Will Be No Recovery Without Production”. Available online:

(2020c). “How Lockdowns Shattered the Structure of Production”. Available online:

Einaudi, L. (1986). La Guerra e l’Unità Europea. Bologna: Il Mulino. Originally published in 1944.El-Erian, M. (2021). “Supply chain issues add to stagflationary winds”. Available online:, L. (2021). “Enter the Draghi: can ‘Super Mario’ save Italy as he did the Euro?” Available online:, L. (1986). “Nacimiento de la economía de mercado”. In J. Huerta de Soto (Ed.), Lecturas de Economía Politica, Vol. II (pp. 257-278). Madrid: Unión Editorial.European Central Bank. (2023). Fiscal policies. Available online: Reserve Bank of St. Louis. (2023). U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Unemployement Rate. Avaiable online:

Ferguson, N. (2021). Doom: The Politics of Catastrophe. London: Allen Lande.Ferrero, B. (2020a). “Review of Alberto Mingardi, ´La verità, vi prego, sul neoliberismo´”. Procesos de Mercado: Revista Europea de Economia Politica, 17 (1), 564-565.

(2020b). “The Fatal Deceit of Public Policy: Can Austrian Economics And Public Choice Economics Complement Each Other?”. Procesos de Mercado: Revista Europea de Economia Politica, 17 (1), 327-350.

(2022). “Inflazione: sempre e comunque un fenomeno monetario”. Available online:

Flynn, J. (1948). The Roosevelt Myth. New York: Devin-Adair.Forte, F. (2011). L’economia italiana dal Risorgimento ad oggi 1861-2011. Siena: Cantagalli.Friedman, F. & Schwartz, A. (1963). A Monetary History of the United States, 1867-1960. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Friedman, M. (1994). Money Mischief. New York: Harcourt Brace. Available online: W. Bush Presidential Center. (2012). “Tax policies for 4% Growth: Evidence from the States, American History, Markets, and Nations”. Available online:, H. (2021). Twenty-Four Conservative-Liberal Thinkers- Part II. Bruxelles: New Direction.Gomez, N. (2009). In margine a un testo implicito. Milano: Adelphi.Haberler, G. (1932). “Money and the Business Cycle”. In Q. Wright (Ed.), Gold and Monetary Stabilization (pp. 43-74). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Haller, C. (1963). La restaurazione della scienza politica. Torino: UTET. Originally published in 1824.Hardin, G. (1968). “The Tragedy of the Commons”. Science New Series, 162 (3859), 1243-1248.

Harper, F. (2008). “The Greatest Economic Charity”. In M. Sennholz (Ed.), On Freedom and Free Enterprise. Essays in Honour of Ludwig von Mises. Princeton: D. Van Nostrand Company, Inc.Hayek, F. (1933). Monetary Theory and the Trade Cycle. New York: Augustus M. Kelley.

(1974). “The Pretense of Knowledge”. In Lecture to the memory of Alfred Nobel. Stockholm, Sweden, (11 December 1974).

(1984). “The Monetary Policy of the United States after the Recovery from the 1920 Crisis”. In R. McCloughry (Ed.), Money, Capital and Fluctuations: Early Essays (pp. 5-32). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

(2007). The Road to Serfdom. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Originally published in 1944.

Hobbes, T. (2017). Leviathan. London: Penguin Classics. Originally published in 1651.Hoover, H. (1932). “Address Accepting the Republican Presidential Nomination”. Available online:, H. (1999). “Time Preference, Government, and the Process of De-Civilization : From Monarchy to Democracy”. In J. Denson (Eds.), The Costs of War (pp. 169-201). London: Routledge.

(2001). Democracy: The God That Failed. New Jersey: Transaction Publishers.

(2011). “Why the State Demands Control of Money”. Available online:

(2014). From Aristocracy to Monarchy to Democracy. A Tale of Moral and Economic Decay. Auburn: Ludwig von Mises Institute.

(2021). “The Idea of a Private Law Society: The Case of Karl Ludwig von Haller”. Available online:

Horvat, H. (2022). “How Debt Policies Are Provoking an Unavoidable Crash”. Available online:, S. (2011). “Herbert Hoover. Father of the New Deal”. Cato Briefing Paper, 122, 1-12.

Huerta de Soto, J. (1998). Dinero, crédito bancario y ciclos económicos. Madrid: Unión Editorial.

(2003). “Nota crítica sobre la propuesta de reforma de las normas de contabilidad”. Partida Doble, 142, pp. 24-27.

(2004). Estudios de Economía Politica. 2 ed. Madrid: Unión Editorial.

(2007). Ahorro y previsión en el seguro de vida y otros ensayos sobre seguridad social y planes privados de pensiones. Madrid : Unión Editorial.

(2008). “Financial Crisis and Recession”. Available online:

(2009). “El error fatal de Ben Bernanke”. Procesos de Mercado: Revista Europea de Economia Politica, 6 (1), 233-236.

(2010a). Socialism, Economic Calculation and Entrepreneurship. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.

(2010b). The Theory of Dynamic Efficiency. London: Routledge.

(2012a). “I Beni Capitali e il Capitale”. In F. Carbone (Ed.). A Scuola di Economia. Lezioni del professor Jesús Huerta de Soto. Liberamente trascritte e rielaborate (pp. 71-77). Usemlab.

(2012b). “Critica alle altre scuole economiche”. In F. Carbone (Ed.). A Scuola di Economia. Lezioni del professor Jesús Huerta de Soto. Liberamente trascritte e rielaborate (pp. 177-189). Usemlab.

(2012c). La esencia de la Escuela Austriaca. Ciudad de Guatemala: Universidad Francisco Marroquín.

(2012d). “La teoria del capitale”. In F. Carbone (Ed.). A Scuola di Economia. Lezioni del professor Jesús Huerta de Soto. Liberamente trascritte e rielaborate (pp. 147-153). Usemlab.

(2012e). ”La crisi dell’interventismo”. In F. Carbone (Ed.). A Scuola di Economia. Lezioni del professor Jesús Huerta de Soto. Liberamente trascritte e rielaborate. Usemlab.

(2012f). “Nascita ed Evoluzione del Denaro”. In F. Carbone (Ed.). A Scuola di Economia. Lezioni del professor Jesús Huerta de Soto. Liberamente trascritte e rielaborate. Usemlab.

(2014). Ensayos de Economía Politica. Madrid: Unión Editorial.

(2017). Lecturas de Economìa Politica. Vol. 3. Madrid: Unión Editorial.

(2019). “The Japanization of the European Union”. Available online:

(2021). “The Economic Effects of Pandemics: An Austrian Analysis”. Available online:

(2022). “Patrimonio: ¿impuesto a los ricos o a los pobres?” Available online:

Huerta de Soto, J., Sánchez-Báyon, A., & Bagus, P. (2021). “Principles of Monetary & Financial Sustainability and Wellbeing in a Post-COVID 19 World: The Crisis and Its Management”. Sustainability, 13, 1-11.Huerta de Soto, J., & Ferrero, B. (2022). Pandemia e dirigismo. Torino: IBL Libri.Hülsmann, J. (2003a). “Optimal Monetary Policy”. The Quarterly Journal of Austrian Economics, 6 (4), 37-38.

(2003b). “Facts and Counterfactuals in Economic Law”. The Journal of Libertarian Studies, 17 (1), 77-78.

(2006). Deflation and Liberty. Auburn: Ludwig von Mises Institute.

Infantino, l. (2008). Individualismo, Mercato e Storia delle Idee. Soveria Mannelli: Rubbettino.

(2019). Cercatori di Libertà. Soveria Mannelli: Rubbettino.

Ioannidis, J. (2021). “How the Pandemic is changing the Norms of Science”. Available online:, P. (1997). A History of the American People. New York: Harper Collins Publishers.Jouvenel, B. (1947). Il Potere. Storia naturale del suo sviluppo. Milano-Roma: Rizzoli editore.

(1972). Du pouvoir. Vanves : Hachette.

(2008). The Ethics of Redistribution. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Originally published in 1951.

Karp, W. (1979). The Politics of War. New York: Harper and Rowe.Kerr, G., Lyddon, B., & Colombatto, E. (2021). “The ECB’s Pandemic Emergency Purchase Programme (PEPP)”. IREF.Keynes, K. (1971). The Economic Consequences of the Peace, now in The Collected Writings of John Maynard Keynes, vol. 2. London: Macmillan. Originally published in 1919.Kirzner, I. (1985). Discovery and the Capitalist Process. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Krugman, P. (2009). “Fiscal aspects of quantitative easing (wonkish)”. Available online:, E. (2000). “Monarchy and War”. The Journal of Libertarian Studies, 15 (1), 1-41.Lachmann, L. (1978). Capital and its Structure. San Francisco: Institute for Humane Studies.Lenin, V. (1974). L’imperialismo fase suprema del capitalismo. Rola: Editori Riuniti. Originally published in 1917.Liggio, L. (1966). “Early Anti-Imperialism”. Left and Right, 2 (2), pp. 39-57.Long, R. (2005). Libertarian Anarchism: Response to Ten Objections. Auburn: Ludwig von Mises Institute.Lottieri, C. (2011). Credere nello Stato? Teologia Politica e Dissimulazione Da Filippo Il Bello a Wikileaks. Soveria Mannelli: Rubbettino.

(2013). Liberali e non. Percorsi di storia del pensiero politico. Milano: Editrice La Scuola.

(2015). “L’oro e la civiltà dell’Occidente”. StoriaLibera. Rivista di scienze storiche e sociali, 1 (1), 109-116.

(2021). “Non mi vaccino, non accetto la condizione di suddito”. Available online:

Machiavelli, N. (1998). Discourses on Livy. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Originally published in 1531.

(2012). The Prince. Milano: Biblioteca Universale Rizzoli. Originally published in 1532.

Macovei, M. (2021). “Shortages Aren’t Causing Inflation”. Money Creation is. Available online:, M. (2020). Il mostro cinese. Le bugie di Pechino, gli errori di Roma. Cronaca di una Pandemia che si poteva evitare. Piemme: Casale Monferrato.Martino, A. (2004). Semplicemente Liberale. Macerata: Liberilibri.

(2022). “L’euro e i suoi dilemmi: una prospettiva semplicemente liberale (2010-2015)”. StoriaLibera. Rivista di scienze storiche e sociali, 8 (16), 96-97.

McMaken, R. (2021). “The FED’s Inflation Is behind the Supply Chain Mess”. Available online:, F. (1957). Machiavellianism: The Doctrine of Raison d’état and its Place in Modern History. New Haven: Yale University Press.Mencken, H. (1967). Minority Report: H. L. Mencken’s Notebooks. New York: Knopf.Menger C. (1892). “On the Origin of Money”, Economic Journal, 2 (6), 239-255.

(1985). Investigations into the Method of the Social Sciences with special reference to Economics. New York: New York University Press. Originally published in 1883.

Meyer, L. (2001). “Inflation targets and inflation targeting”. In Remarks at the University of California at San Diego Economics Roundtable. San Diego (California), United States (17 July 2001).Micossi, S. (2015). “The Monetary Policy of the European Central Bank (2002-2015)”. Centre for European Policy Studies, 109, 1-37.Mieli, P. (2021). Fascismo. Dalla Nascita All’Eredità Politica. Milano: BUR Rizzoli.Miglio, G. (2007). Genesi e trasformazioni del termine-concetto ‘Stato’. Brescia: Morcelliana.Miller, R. (2009). “US Needs More Inflation to Speed Recovery, say Mankiw, Rogoff”. Available online:, A. (2009). La crisi ha ucciso il libero mercato? Torino: Istituto Bruno Leoni Libri.

(2019). La verità vi prego sul neoliberismo. 2 ed. Venezia: Marsilio.

Mises, L. (1936). “La Theorie dite Autrichenne de Cycle Economique“. Bulletin de Societe Belge d’Etudes et d’Expansion, 459-464.

(1949). Human Action: A Treatise on Economics. Auburn: Ludwig von Mises Institute. Originally published in 1949.

(1962). The Ultimate Foundation of Economic Science. Princeton: D. Van Nostrand Company Inc.

(1969). Omnipotent Government: The Rise of Total State and Total War. New Rochelle: Arlington House.

(1998). Interventionism: An Economic Analysis. Irvington-on-Hudson: Foundation for Economic Education. Originally published in 1940.

(2003a). Epistemological Problems of Economics. Auburn: Ludwig von Mises Institute. Originally published in 1933.

(2003b). Profit and Loss. Auburn: Ludwig von Mises Institute. Originally published in 1951.

(2009). The Theory of Money and Credit. Auburn: Ludwig von Mises Institute. Originally published in 1912.

Mistreanu, S. (2018). “Life Inside China’s Social Credit Laboratory. The party’s massive experiment in ranking and monitoring Chinese citizens has already started”. Available online:, R. (1948). “Reappraising Hoover”. Newsweek.Morley, F. (1959). Freedom and Federalism. Chicago: Henry Ragnary Company.Mosse, G. (2009). The Nationalization of the Masses. Ithaca: Cornell University Press. Originally published in 1974.Mueller, A. (2018). “The Marshall Plan: Fiction and Facts”. Available online:, R. (2014). “Ben Bernanke, The FDR of Central Bankers”. In D. Howden & J. Salerno (Eds.), The Fed at One Hundred: A Critical View on the Federal Reserve System (pp. 31-41). London and New York: Springer.

(2020). Understanding Money Mechanics. Auburn: Ludwig von Mises Institute.

(2021). “The FED’s policies since the 2020 Coronavirus Panic”. Available online:

Murray, C. (1984). Losing Ground. New York: Basic Books.Nisbet, R. (1975). The Twilight of Authority. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Nordhaus, W. (2004). “Schumpeterian Profits in the American Economy: Theory and Measurement”. Working Paper 10433- National Bureau of Economic Research, 1-35.

OECD. (2021). “Global economic recovery continues but remains uneven”. Available online:, F. (1926). The State. New York: Vanguard Press.Ortega y Gasset, J. (2019). La Rebelión de las Masas. Barcelona : Editorial Planeta.Page, J., Fan, W., & Khan, N. (2020). “How It All Started: China’s Early Coronavirus Missteps”. Available online:, H. (1932). “Federal Reserve Policy in Depression”. In Q. Wright (Ed.), Gold and Monetary Stabilization (pp. 77-108). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Perfetti, F. (2021). “Il New Deal? Antiliberale, anzi Fascista”. Available online:, G. (2003). “Il diritto naturale nel pensiero controrivoluzionario di Carl Ludwig von Haller”. Elites, 4 (7), 160.Porro, N. (2022). Il Padreterno è Liberale. Milano: Piemme.Raico, R. (1995). “America’s Foreign Policy: 1898-1919 The Turning Point”. Available online:, J. (2011). Los errores de la vieja economía. Madrid: Unión Editorial.Rectenwald, M. (2021). “Lockdowns and Vaccine Mandates: China’s most successful export?” Available online:

(2022). “Woke Capitalism is a Monopoly Game”. Available online:

Reed, L. (2010). Great Myths of the Great Depression. Midland: Mackinac Center for Public Policy.Reisman, G., & Simon, W. (2020). The Government Against the Economy. New York City: Kampann and Company.Reserve Bank of Australia. (2020). “Unconventional Monetary Policy”. Available online:

Risjord, N. (2002). Jefferson’s America, 1760-1815. Lanham: Rowman and Littlefield Publishers.Robbins, L. (1934). The Great Depression. Freeport: Books For Libraries Press.Robertson, H. (2022). “Bottlenecks at oil refineries have sent US gas prices soaring to top $5 a gallon- and the crisis is unlikely to end soon”. Available online:, M. (1956). “Government in Business”. The Freeman: Ideas on Liberty, 40-41.

(1962). “H.L. Mencken, The Joyous Libertarian”. New Individualist Review, 2 (2), 15-27.

(1972). “War Collectivism in World War I”. In R. Radosh & M. Rothbard (Eds.), A New History of Leviathan (pp. 66-110). Boston: E.P Dutton & Co.

(1994). “Nations by Consent”. The Journal of Libertarian Studies, 11 (1), 1-10.

(1995). Economic Thought Before Adam Smith. An Austrian Perspective on the History of Economic Thought. Volume 1. Auburn: Ludwig von Mises Institute.

(2000). America’s Great Depression. Auburn: Ludwig von Mises Institute. Originally published in 1963.

(2002). “Milton Friedman Unraveled”. Journal of Libertarian Studies, 16 (4), 37-54.

(2005). What Has Government Done to Our Money? Auburn: Ludwig von Mises Institute. Originally published in 1991.

(2006). Power and Market. 4 ed. Auburn: Ludwig von Mises Institute.

(2008). The Mystery of Banking. Auburn: Ludwig von Mises Institute.

(2017). The Progressive Era. Auburn : Ludwig von Mises Institute.

Salerno, J. (1999). “War and the Money Machine: Concealing the Costs of War Beneath the Veil of Inflation”. In J. Denson (Eds.), The Costs of War (pp. 169-201). London: Routledge.

(2012). “A Reformulation of Austrian Business Cycle Theory in Light of the Financial Crisis”. The Quarterly Journal of Austrian Economics, 17 (1), pp. 3-44.

Santagostino, A. (2017). Luigi Einaudi, the Father of the Fathers of Europe. Newcastle: Cambridge Scholars Publishing.Schain, M. (2001). The Marshall Plan: Fifty Years After. London: Palgrave Macmillan.Schmitt, S. (2013). Le categorie del “politico”. Bologna: Il Mulino. Originally published in 1932.Schwab, K. & Malleret, T. (2020). Covid 19: The Great Reset, Cologny/Geneva: World Economic Forum.Senger, M. (2021). “The Masked Ball of Cowardice”. Available online:, H. (1969). “The Great Depression”. Available online:, A. (2007). The Forgotten Man: A New History of the Great Depression. New York: Harper Collins Publishers.Sieron, A. (2020). Monetary Policy After the Great Recession: The Role of Interest Rates. London: Taylor & Francis.Simmel, G. (1990). The Philosophy of Money. London: Routledge. Originally published in 1900.Skinner, Q. (1978). The Foundations of Modern Political Thought, vol. 1 The Renaissance. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Statista. (2021). European Central Bank: total assets 2021. Available online:

(2022). Europe: non-performing bank exposures ratio 2022. Available online:

Storr, V., Haeffele, S., Lofthouse, J., & Grube, L. (2021). “Essential or Not? Knowledge problems and COVID 19 stay-at-home orders”. Southern Economic Journal, 87 (4), 1229-1249.Strauss, L. (1958). Thoughts on Machiavelli. Glencoe: The Free Press.Stromberg, J. (1999). “The Spanish-American War as Trial Run, or Empire as its Own Justification”. In J. Denson (Eds.), The Costs of War (pp. 169-201). London: Routledge.Sumner, W. (1899). “The Conquest of the United States by Spain”. Yale Law Journal, 8 (4), pp. 168-193.

(1914). War and Other Essays. New Haven: Yale University Press.

Talmon, J. (1961). The Origin of Totalitarian Democracy. London: Secker & Warburg.Tejada, F. (1954). La Monarquía Tradicional. Madrid: Ediciones Rialp.Tocqueville, A. (2000). Democracy in America. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Originally published in 1836.Turco, G. (2020). Prefazione a Diego Benedetto Panetta, Il Pensiero Controrivoluzionario. Onore, fedeltà e bellezza al servizio di Dio. Roma: Historica Giubilei Regnani.Woodford, M. (2012). “Methods of Policy Accomodation at the Interest-Rate Lower Bound”. Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City Economic Policy Symposium, pp. 4-10.Woods, T. (2009). Meltdown. Washington DC: Regnery Publishing, Inc.Wu, S. & Yin, G. (2018). “China’s Political Economy After 40 Years of Reform”. Available online:, S. (2019). The Age of Surveillance Capitalism: The Fight for a Human Future at the New Frontier of Power. New York: Public Affairs.Zweig, S. (2010). Il mondo di ieri. Ricordi di un europeo. Milano: Mondadori.




How to Cite

FERRERO ZENDRINI, B. (2023). From the Great Recession to the Great Lockdown: a multidisciplinary approach. REVISTA PROCESOS DE MERCADO, 20(1), 84.