• Esmeralda Gómez López



The objective of the present article is to define the concept of individual financial health and identify the key exogenous and endogenous factors that influence it. The methodology employed is of a holistic, praxeological, exploratory-documentary nature, relying on a bibliographic-hemerographic review of specialized literature on the subject. The significance of an interdisciplinary approach is emphasized, allowing for the integration of different theoretical perspectives. Financial health is defined as sustained well-being over time, achieved through effective personal economic management within a favorable context. It is considered that financial health is the result of the interplay of multiple contextual factors, the law of time preference, and the exercise of individual self-determination. In conclusion, despite the limitations and challenges faced by the concept, its utility is undeniable in comprehending and addressing the complexity of the current economic reality.


Alesina, A. & Giuliano, P. (2015): “Culture and institutions”, en Journal of economic literature, 53(4), 898-944.

Almenberg, J., & Dreber, A. (2015): “Gender, stock market participation and financial literacy”, en Economics Letters, 137, 140-142.

American Psychological Association. (Varios años): “Stress in America survey”, en American Psychological Association.

Arrondel, L., Debbich, M., & Savignac, F. (2012): “Stockholding and financial literacy in the French population”, en International

Journal of Social Sciences and Humanity Studies, 4(2), 285-294.

Briceño-León, R., de Souza Minayo, M. C. & Coimbra Jr, C. E. (Eds.).

(2000): Salud y equidad: una mirada desde las ciencias sociales, SciELO-Editora FIOCRUZ.

Brzozowski, M., Gervais, M., Klein, P. & Suzuki, M. (2010): “Consumption, income, and wealth inequality in Canada”, en Review of economic dynamics, 13(1), 52-75.

Bucher-Koenen, T. & Ziegelmeyer, M. (2011): “Who lost the most? Financial literacy, cognitive abilities, and the financial crisis”, en Mannheim Research Institute for the Economics of Aging Working Paper 234.

Bursztyn, L., Ederer, F., Ferman, B. & Yuchtman, N. (2014): “Understanding mechanisms underlying peer effects: Evidence from a field experiment on financial decisions”, en Econometrica, 82(4), 1273-1301.

Chetty, R., Hendren, N. & Katz, L. F. (2016a): “The effects of exposure to better neighborhoods on children: New evidence from the moving to opportunity experiment”, en American Economic Review, 106(4), 855-902.

Chetty, R., Hendren, N., Lin, F., Majerovitz, J. & Scuderi, B. (2016b): Childhood environment and gender gaps in adulthood”, en American Economic Review, 106(5), 282-288.

Christelis, D., Jappelli, T. & Padula, M. (2010): “Cognitive abilities and portfolio choice”, en European Economic Review, 54(1), 18-38.

Danes, S. M., & Yang, Y. (2014): “Assessment of the use of theories within the Journal of Financial Counseling and Planning and the contribution of the family financial socialization conceptual model”, en Journal of Financial Counseling and Planning, 25(1).

de Bassa Scheresberg, C. (2013): “Financial literacy and financial behavior among young adults: Evidence and implications”, en Numeracy, 6(2), 5.

Eguren, T., Elvira, O. & Larraga, P. (2009): Asesoramiento financiero en la práctica: Proceso de asesoramiento y planificación financiera y ética de asesoramiento financiero (Vol. 12), Profit Editorial.

Foster, T. (2011): “Adverse life events proximal to adult suicide: a synthesis of findings from psychological autopsy studies”, en Archives of suicide research, 15(1), 1-15.

Gómez López, E. (2018): Tu llave a la libertad financiera, Alienta, Grupo Planeta, [sexta edición 2020].

Gómez López, E. (2023): La biblia de la inversión inmobiliaria, Deusto, Grupo Planeta.

Gregg, P. & Tominey, E. (2005): “The wage scar from male youth unemployment”, en Labour Economics, 12(4), 487-509.

Hastings, J. S. & Tejeda-Ashton, L. (2008): Financial literacy, information, and demand elasticity: Survey and experimental evidence from Mexico, (No. w14538) National Bureau of Economic Research.

Hastings, J. S., Madrian, B. C. & Skimmyhorn, W. L. (2013): “Financial literacy, financial education, and economic outcomes”, en Annu. Rev. Econ., 5(1), 347-373.

Hastings, J., Mitchell, O. S. & Chyn, E. (2011): “Fees, framing, and financial literacy in the choice of pension manager”, en Financial literacy: Implications for retirement security and the financial marketplace, 101.

Hilgert, M. A., Hogarth, J. M., & Beverly, S. G. (2003): “Household financial management: The connection between knowledge and behavior”, en Fed. Res. Bull., 89, 309.

Hoppe, H. H. (2014): Economía y ética de la propiedad privada, Editorial Innisfree.

Huerta de Soto, J. (1992): Socialismo, cálculo económico y función empresarial, Unión Editorial, Madrid [sexta edición 2020].

Huerta de Soto, J. (1994): Estudios de economía política, Unión Editorial, Madrid.

Huerta de Soto, J. (2009): Dinero, crédito bancario y ciclos económicos, Unión editorial, Madrid.

Jappelli, T. & Padula, M. (2013): “Investment in financial literacy and saving decisions”, en Journal of Banking & Finance, 37(8), 2779-2792.

Joo, S. H. (1998): Personal financial wellness and worker job productivity (Doctoral dissertation, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University).

Kimball, M. & Shumway, T. (2006): “Investor sophistication, and the participation, home bias, diversification, and employer stock puzzles”, Unpublished Manuscript, University of Michigan.

Klapper, L. F., Lusardi, A. & Panos, G. A. (2012): Financial literacy and the financial crisis (No. w17930). National Bureau of Economic Research.

Kuddo, A. (2009): Employment services and active labor market programs in Eastern European and Central Asian Countries, World

Bank, Human Development Network.

Kyrk, H. (1923): A theory of consumption (Vol. 25). Boston: Houghton Mifflin, Company.

Lusardi, A. & Mitchell, O. S. (Eds.). (2011b): Financial literacy: Implications for retirement security and the financial marketplace. Oxford University Press.

Lusardi, A. & Mitchell, O. S. (2007a): “Baby boomer retirement security: The roles of planning, financial literacy, and housing wealth”, en Journal of monetary Economics, 54(1), 205-224.

Lusardi, A. & Mitchell, O. S. (2011a): Financial literacy and planning: Implications for retirement wellbeing (No. w17078). National Bureau

of Economic Research.

Lusardi, A. & Mitchell, O. S. (2014): “The economic importance of financial literacy: Theory and evidence”, en American Economic Journal: Journal of Economic Literature, 52(1), 5-44.

Lusardi, A. & Mitchell, O. S. (2007b): “Financial literacy and retirement preparedness: Evidence and implications for financial education: The problems are serious, and remedies are not simple”, en Business economics, 42, 35-44.

Lusardi, A. & Tufano, P. (2015): “Debt literacy, financial experiences, and overindebtedness”, en Journal of Pension Economics & Finance, 14(4), 332-368.

Lusardi, A., Michaud, P. C. & Mitchell, O. S. (2017): “Optimal financial knowledge and wealth inequality”, en Journal of political Economy, 125(2), 431-477.

Mani, A., Mullainathan, S., Shafir, E. & Zhao, J. (2013): “Poverty impedes cognitive function”, en science, 341(6149), 976-980.

Mejía Córdova, G. (2017): “Relación entre Estrés Financiero y el Bienestar de los Empleados de Petróleos Mexicanos en el sureste de México”, en Investigación administrativa, 46(119), 0-0.

Menger, C. (1983): Principios de economía política, Unión Editorial, Madrid.

Mises, L. von (1986): La acción humana, Unión editorial, Madrid.

Mottola, G. R. (2013): “In our best interest: Women, financial literacy, and credit card Behavior”, en Numeracy, 6(2), 4. Mundial, B. (2018): Informe sobre el Desarrollo Mundial 2018.

Organización Mundial de la Salud (1948): Constitución de la Organización Mundial de la Salud [Documento en línea]. disponible: [Consulta: 2023, Mayo 17]

Parker, S., Castillo, N., Garon, T. & Levy, R. (2016): “Eight ways to measure financial health”, en Chicago: Center for Financial Services Innovation.

Pindyck, R. S., Rubinfeld, D. L. & Rabasco, E. (2013): Microeconomia, Pearson Educación.

Real Academia Española: Diccionario de la lengua española, 23.ª ed., [versión 23.6 en línea]. <> [20 de Mayo de 2023] Reid, M. G. (1934): Economics of household production.

Reinhart, C. M. & Rogoff, K. S. (2009): “The aftermath of financial crises”, en American Economic Review, 99(2), 466-472.

Robinson, J. A. & Acemoglu, D. (2012): Why nations fail: The origins of power, prosperity and poverty (pp. 45-47). London: Profile.

Simon, H. A. (1984): “On the behavioral and rational foundations of economic dynamics”, en Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 5(1), 35-55.

Skinner, C. (2020): Doing digital: Lessons from leaders, Marshall Cavendish International Asia Pte Ltd.

Slemrod, J. & Yitzhaki, S. (2002): “Tax avoidance, evasion, and administration”, en Handbook of public economics (Vol. 3, pp. 1423-1470). Elsevier.

van Rooij, M., Lusardi, A. & Alessie, R. (2011): “Financial literacy and stock market participation”, en Journal of Financial economics, 101(2), 449-472.

Yoong, J. (2011): “Financial illiteracy and stock market participation: Evidence from the RAND American Life Panel”, en Financial literacy: Implications for retirement security and the financial marketplace, 76, 39.

Zakaria, R. H., Jaafar, N. I. M. & Marican, S. (2012): “Financial behavior and financial position: a structural equation modelling Approach”, en Middle-East Journal of Scientific Research, 12(10




How to Cite